The functions of body organs

In order for the body to work perfectly it has 11 main organ systems that help it to function. They each have different roles that aid in the daily body functions as follows; the integumentary system mainly works as a sense organ, it also regulates the body temperature, and makes hormones and chemicals within the body. The skeletal system main role is to protect and support the body frame, store minerals, make blood cells in the marrow, and ease movements with muscles and joints. The muscular system helps maintain posture, bring about body movement and produce heat in the body. The nervous system enables a person to interact with the environment it also controls and integrates the human body. The endocrine system is entrusted with releasing into the blood system hormones that assist with communication and control mechanisms. The circulatory system helps with establishing immunity and transportation of substances through the blood (Moore, Keith, Dalley, Arthur & Agur Anne, 2010).

The lymphatic system functions as a sub-division of the circulatory system. Its main job is to monitor fluid movements within the body. It also helps with returning excess fluid back to the blood. The digestive system absorbs nutrients, breaks down food, and excretes solid waste. The waste products are then cleaned from the blood by the urinary system in form of urine. The digestive system still helps with maintaining water balance, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance within the body. The reproductive system allows for sex cells transfer and fertilization to occur, production of the sex cells, permits the development and birth of offspring, produces sex hormones, and nourishes offspring’s. Lastly the respiratory system helps converts oxygen from the air for the carbon dioxide waste product within the blood (Moore, Keith, Dalley, Arthur & Agur Anne, 2010).

Three of the most common types of cancer that affect humans include: Carcinomas, which are the most noticeable types of cancer, they are responsible for an approximate 85% of all the diagnosed cases. They mainly grow within the epithelial cells that line the internal body organs. They can further be sub-divided into four main groups namely; adenocarcinomas which attacks the gland linings, squamous cell carcinomas that affect the airways and mouth linings, basal cell carcinomas that affect the skin, and transitional cell carcinoma that attack the blaIDer (Siegel, Ma, Zou, & Jemal, 2014).

Lymphomas and leukemia’s which account for an approximate 7% of all cancer cases. These two are grouped together because they are both produced in the immune system cells. Leukemia, increase in myeloid system cells that help protect the body from parasites and bacteria. While the lymphomas cancer develops within the lymphatic system which is responsible for preventing infections (Siegel, Ma, Zou, & Jemal, 2014).

Sarcomas account for less than 1 % of all diagnosed cases of cancer making them one of the rarest types of cancer. They are found within the connective tissues and can be further divided into three other sub-types. Gastro-intestinal stromal tumors that affect the intestine and the stomach, bone carcinomas that attacks the bones, and soft tissue sarcomas that mainly attacks soft connective tissues such as fat and muscle (Siegel, Ma, Zou, & Jemal, 2014).

Malignant tumors can be described as being cancerous, and they are mainly made from cells that that have grown wild. In these types of tumors, cells can invade nearby tissues and spread to other body parts. In that cells migrate away from the initial affected area and extend to other body parts where they can resettle and form another tumor and continue to grow at that site. With this in mind, the difference that it has with a benign tumor is that they are not harmful. In aIDition unlike the malignant cancer, they can be removed and not re-grow back. lastly, benign tumors are not known to immigrate and spread to other body parts (Nijhawan, et al., 2012).

It has for long perplexed doctors why some patients selectively develop cancer. They have deduced that there are certain elements within our environment and biology that heighten chances of infection some of the identified cause include; tobacco, poor diet, overweight, or lack of physical activity, growing older, alcohol, sunlight, having a family history of cancer, ionizing radiation, and certain hormones and chemicals. Many of these listed risk factors can be controlled however others such as family history cannot be controlled (Nijhawan, et al., 2012).

Expert analysis points out that in ten cancer cases four of them can be prevented. In this aspect people’s chances of drastically reducing cancer can be increased by a few simple lifestyle adjustments. Simple practices like avoiding exposure to smoke or smoking helps mitigate the chances of cancer infection. Knowing your family medical and personal history of cancer is also important since it helps you know the type of cancer you are most susceptible to. Getting regular cancer screening tests is also useful not only in preventing but also detecting it. Tests like Pap smear and colonoscopy can identify any abnormalities before they turn serious. Limiting or regulating intake of animal fat and red meat that are known to increase the risk for some of the cancer types especially the colon cancer is an effective countermeasure. Applying alternatives like poultry and fish over red meat is a sure way of cancer prevention. Avoiding excess intake of fatty food can be extremely helpful with the cancer mitigation since fatty foods promote obesity which is a common risk factor for cancer (McCracken et al., 2007).

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