You must write (2) replies of at least 140 words each to other classmates threads, and a minimum of 1 source is referenced appropriately for each reply. Note that both quantity and quality are important considerations when it comes to participation. For example, a message that says simply, I agree, does not constitute participation because it does not add anything of substance to the discussion.
In order to earn points, you must add something of substance to the discussion; this would consist of new ideas, your perspectives, pointed follow-up questions, etc.
Responding to a classmates post requires both the addition of new ideas and further analysis. A particular point made by the classmate must be addressed and built upon by your analysis in order to move the conversation forward. Thus, the response post is a rigorous assignment that requires you to build upon initial posts to develop deeper and more thorough discussion of the ideas introduced in the initial posts. As such, reply posts that merely affirm, restate or unprofessionally quarrel with the previous post(s) and fail to make a valuable, substantive contribution to the discussion will receive appropriate point deductions.
Reply to Anosha:
A hazard that has the potential to become the most dangerous is chemical warfare. Chemical weapons are created for the sole purpose of killing, injuring, or incapacitating people. They can enter the body through inhalation, ingestion, or the skin or eyes (Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., & Coppola, D. P. (2016). If a chemical agent were to be released, this chemical agent could threaten human lives, livestock, insects, and birds. Chemical weapons can be administered through explosives, aerosol devices spreading chemicals in liquid, solid or gas form, and mixing food and water with the harmful chemical. Exposing chemical agents to the air threatens the lives of many and can be fatal. For example, the release of nerve agents can result in decreased heart rate and blood pressure and paralysis of the respiratory muscles and inhibition of the respiratory center. Ultimately, death results due to respiratory paralysis (Ganesan, K., Raza, S.K., & Vijayaraghaven, R.).
Although biological weapons are just as dangerous and devastating as chemical warfare, it is less of a threat to the United States. In terms of pure statistical risk, the likelihood of their use causing a major event is very low simply because it is so difficult and comparatively very expensive for small-scale terrorist elements to manufacture, store, and deploy them when considered in light of the wider range of attack options available (Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., & Coppola, D. P. (2016).
Combining hazards such as chemical weapons and biological weapons could potentially be the biggest threat to the U.S if terrorists considered doing so. Although there are vaccinations that could cure the infected person and symptoms that could point out the sick, this could delay the seasoned expert due to the amount of information that one may or may not have on the combined hazards (Introduction to homeland security: principles of all-hazards risk management, p.98).
Principle 12 speaks of protecting each state from invasion and against domestic violence. An appropriate response to a chemical warfare attack against the U.S. is preparation and training. This includes protective gear and equipment, effective and humane ways of isolating those who may have been exposed to chemicals and continuing to perfect vaccinations.
Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., & Coppola, D. P. (2016). Introduction to homeland security: principles of all-hazards risk management. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Ganesan, K., Raza, S. K., & Vijayaraghavan, R. (2010, July). Chemical warfare agents. Retrieved January 29, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3148621/
Skousen, W. C. (2013). The five thousand year leap: a miracle that changed the world. Salt Lake City, UT: Freemen Institute.
Reply to Benjamin:
When considering CBRNE, natural, and technological hazards, I perceive technological hazards to be most dangerous to the United States in regards to a terrorist attack. Technological hazards, or man-made hazards as they are often called, are an inevitable product of technological innovation and human development. (Bullock, Haddow, Coppola, 2016) This means things like bridges, dams, and major infrastructures are all hazards included in this topic. If an attack was successful in taking down power and communication grids it would be detrimental to vital parts of life such as water, gas, and food supplies. The initial threat may be more mental than physical considering no power, no internet, no gas stations, and no cell phones would mentally cripple the affected area more so than physically with the exception of those dependent on electrically powered medical equipment and the ones who are unable to survive without heat or air due to age. This long term threat without intervention would lead to the physical threat by creating widespread panic and chaos since the effected people really would have no idea what happened other than everything shut down and didnt come back on. Depending on the size and type of the technological hazard or threat the response to this would, more times than not, be handled by the federal government. If it was a large bridge or large dam there would be an imminent death toll and immediate secondary structural issues elsewhere could occur as a result. If it was a large grid, power and/or communication, failure then an immediate notification to the people in the area to prevent widespread panic would be necessary first before repairs could be made.
Second I would place CBRNE, which stands for chemical, biological, radiological/nuclear or explosive, incidents can come in numerous forms such as a virus, nerve agent, or a nuclear device. While a nuclear incident of any type is a huge issue, terrorists typically dont have the ability to create or obtain the technology so this is the least likely hazard with the exception of an attack on a nuclear power facility. With the security well established and safety measures in place this event still is unlikely as well. Chemical or biological would be the main hazards of concern relative to their probability. If a biological event occurs it could take weeks to even realize since symptoms may not be immediately obvious. This would mean that the population effected could be large and the available treatment for the illness could be lacking in quantity. This could be an illness that effects only animals, humans, or plants or a combination such as humans and animals. A large scale persistent chemical attack would be detrimental as well. We use chemicals and transport them all over the country every day and it would be a target of opportunity to turn one of these hazards into a real time threat
Third comes natural hazards in regards to a terrorist attack. The ability to turn a natural hazard into a threat for terrorists is slim with the main exception of wildfires and mass movements. The hazards associated with these are very real for people in areas prone to wildfires and movements like avalanches and landslides. The wildfires that devastated Gatlinburg, TN in 2016 is a prime example of an unforeseen event that was not predicted and caused a large loss of property and revenue. Although this was not a terrorist threat this is something similar that could happen anywhere. An avalanche hazard that materializes could be devastating to mountain communities and impossible to stop as they happen so quickly.
A combined technological hazard and a CBNRE hazard would be the most dangerous in my opinion. Take out the infrastructure to respond and treat patients and then inflict the area with a biohazard would be a lethal combination. Regardless of the hazards and the threats they could materialize into Principle 24 – A free people will not survive unless they stay strong. is the key to survival for any citizen in any area that is effected by any event that has occurred or thwarted.
American Founding Principles, Module/Week 1 Additional Materials
Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., & Coppola, D. P. (2016). Introduction to Homeland Security: Principles of All-Hazards Risk Management. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann