# Essay

Essay

300 words, don’t use any reference, only our only thoughts.

We all use heuristics in our everyday lives and even in our jobs. Provide three concrete examples of recent work decisions (yours or your coworker’s or even your boss’s) that were biased by the three judgmental heuristics in this reading. Show that you understand the psychology by explaining the source of bias in each decision. For each bias, how can you improve your decision process in the future (please use course concepts and be realistic)?

Many decisions are based on beliefs concerning the likelihood of uncertain events such as the outcome of an elec- tion, the guilt of a defendant, or the future value of the dollar. These beliefs are usually expressed in statements such as “I think that . .. ,” “chances are . . .,” “it is unlikely that . .. ,” and so forth. Occasionally, beliefs concern- ing uncertain events are expressed in numerical form as odds or subjective probabilities. What determines such be- liefs? How do people assess the prob- ability of an uncertain event or the value of an uncertain quantity? This article shows that people rely on a limited number of heuristic principles which reduce the complex tasks of as-

sessing probabilities and predicting val- ues to simpler judgmental operations. In general, these heuristics are quite useful, but sometimes they lead to severe and systematic errors.

The subjective assessment of proba- bility resembles the subjective assess- ment of physical quantities such as distance or size. These judgments are all based on data of limited validity, which are processed according to heu- ristic rules. For example, the apparent distance of an object is determined in

part by its clarity. The more sharply the

object is seen, the closer it appears to be. This rule has some validity, because in any given scene the more distant

objects are seen less sharply than nearer

objects. However, the reliance on this rule leads to systematic errors in the estimation of distance. Specifically, dis- tances are often overestimated when

visibility is poor because the contours of objects are blurred. On the other hand, distances are often underesti-

mated when visibility is good because the objects are seen sharply. Thus, the reliance on clarity as an indication of distance leads to common biases. Such biases are also found in the intuitive judgment of probability. This article describes three heuristics that are em- ployed to assess probabilities and to predict values. Biases to which these heuristics lead are enumerated, and the applied and theoretical implications of these observations are discussed.

Representativeness

Many of the probabilistic questions with which people are concerned belong to one of the following types: What is the probability that object A belongs to class B? What is the probability that event A originates from process B? What is the probability that process B will generate event A? In answering such questions, people typically rely on the representativeness heuristic, in which probabilities are evaluated by the

degree to which A is representative of B, that is, by the degree to which A resembles B. For example, when A is

highly representative of B, the proba- bility that A originates from B is judged to be high. On the other hand, if A is not similar to B, the probability that A originates from B is judged to be low.

For an illustration of judgment by representativeness, consider an indi- vidual who has been described by a former neighbor as follows: “Steve is

very shy and withdrawn, invariably helpful, but with little interest in peo- ple, or in the world of reality. A meek and tidy soul, he has a need for order and structure, and a passion for detail.” How do people assess the probability that Steve is engaged in a particular

occupation from a list of possibilities (for example, farmer, salesman, airline pilot, librarian, or physician)? How do people order these occupations from most to least likely? In the representa- tiveness heuristic, the probability that Steve is a librarian, for example, is assessed by the degree to which he is representative of, or similar to, the stereotype of a librarian. Indeed, re- search with problems of this type has shown that people order the occupa- tions by probability and by similarity in exactly the same way (1). This ap- proach to the judgment of probability leads to serious errors, because sim- ilarity, or representativeness, is not in- fluenced by several factors that should affect judgments of probability.

Insensitivity to prior probability of outcomes. One of the factors that have no effect on representativeness but should have a major effect on probabil- ity is the prior probability, or base-rate frequency, of the outcomes. In the case of Steve, for example, the fact that there are many more farmers than li- brarians in the population should enter into any reasonable estimate of the probability that Steve is a librarian rather than a farmer. Considerations of base-rate frequency, however, do not affect the similarity of Steve to the

stereotypes of librarians and farmers. If people evaluate probability by rep- resentativeness, therefore, prior proba- bilities will be neglected. This hypothesis was tested in an experiment where prior probabilities were manipulated (1). Subjects were shown brief personality descriptions of several individuals, al-

legedly sampled at random from a

group of 100 professionals-engineers and lawyers. The subjects were asked to assess, for each description, the prob- ability that it belonged to an engineer rather than to a lawyer. In one experi- mental condition, subjects were told that the group from which the descrip- tions had been drawn consisted of 70 engineers and 30 lawyers. In another condition, subjects were told that the group consisted of 30 engineers and 70

lawyers. The odds that any particular description belongs to an engineer rather than to a lawyer should be

higher in the first condition, where there is a majority of engineers, than in the second condition, where there is a

majority of lawyers. Specifically, it can be shown by applying Bayes’ rule that the ratio of these odds should be (.7/.3)2, or 5.44, for each description. In a sharp violation of Bayes’ rule, the subjects in the two conditions produced essen-

SCIENCE, VOL. 185

Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases

Biases in judgments reveal some heuristics of

thinking under uncertainty.

Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman

The authors are members of the department of psychology at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Tsrael.

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tially the same probability judgments. Apparently, subjects evaluated the like- lihood that a particular description be- longed to an engineer rather than to a lawyer by the degree to which this description was representative of the two stereotypes, with little or no regard for the prior probabilities of the cate- gories.

The subjects used prior probabilities correctly when they had no other infor- mation. In the absence of a personality sketch, they judged the probability that an unknown individual is an engineer to be .7 and .3, respectively, in the two base-rate conditions. However, prior probabilities were effectively ignored when a description was introduced, even when this description was totally uninformative. The responses to the following description illustrate this phe- nomenon:

Dick is a 30 year old man. He is mar- ried with no children. A man of high ability and high motivation, he promises to be quite successful in his field. He is well liked by his colleagues. This description was intended to convey no information relevant to the question of whether Dick is an engineer or a lawyer. Consequently, the probability that Dick is an engineer should equal the proportion of engineers in the group, as if no description had been given. The subjects, however, judged the probability of Dick being an engi- neer to be .5 regardless of whether the stated proportion of engineers in the group was .7 or .3. Evidently, people respond differently when given no evi- dence and when given worthless evi- dence. When no specific evidence is given, prior probabilities are properly utilized; when worthless evidence is given, prior probabilities are ignored (1).

Insensitivity to sample size. To eval- uate the probability of obtaining a par- ticular result in a sample drawn from a specified population, people typically apply the representativeness heuristic. That is, they assess the likelihood of a sample result, for example, that the average height in a random sample of ten men will be 6 feet (180 centi- meters), by the similarity of this result to the corresponding parameter (that is, to the average height in the popula- tion of men). The similarity of a sam- ple statistic to a population parameter does not depend on the size of the sample. Consequently, if probabilities are assessed by representativeness, then the judged probability of a sample sta- tistic will be essentially independent of 27 SEPTEMBER 1974

sample size. Indeed, when subjects assessed the distributions of average height for samples of various sizes, they produced identical distributions. For example, the probability of obtain- ing an average height greater than 6 feet was assigned the same value for samples of 1000, 100, and 10 men (2). Moreover, subjects failed to appreciate the role of sample size even when it was emphasized in the formulation of the problem. Consider the following question:

A certain town is served by two hos- pitals. In the larger hospital about 45 babies are born each day, and in the smaller hospital about 15 babies are born each day. As you know, about 50 percent of all babies are boys. However, the exact percentage varies from day to day. Some- times it may be higher than 50 percent, sometimes lower.

For a period of 1 year, each hospital recorded the days on which more than 60 percent of the babies born were boys. Which hospital do you think recorded more such days?

– The larger hospital (21) – The smaller hospital (21) – A!bout the same (that is, within 5 percent of each other) (53)

The values in parentheses are the num- ber of undergraduate students who chose each answer.

Most subjects judged the probability of obtaining more than 60 percent boys to be the same in the small and in the large hospital, presumably because these events are described by the same sta- tistic and are therefore equally repre- sentative of the general population. In contrast, sampling theory entails that the expected number of days on which more than 60 percent of ithe babies are boys is much greater in the small hos- pital than in the large one, because a large sample is less likely to stray from 50 percent. This fundamental notion of statistics is evidently not part of people’s repertoire of intuitions.

A similar insensitivity to sample size has been reported in judgments of pos- terior probability, that is, of the prob- ability that a sample has been drawn from one population rather than from another. Consider the following ex- ample:

Imagine an urn filled with balls, of which 2/3 are of one color and ?3 of another. One individual has drawn 5 balls ,from the urn, and found that 4 were red and 1 was white Another individual has drawn 20 balls and found that 12 were red and 8 were white. Which of the two individuals should feel more confident that the urn contains 2/3 red balls and 1/3 white balls, rather than the opposite? What odds should each individual give?

In this problem, the correct pos,terior odds are 8 to 1 for the 4: 1 sample and 16 to 1 for the 12: 8 sample, as- suming equal prior probabilities. How- ever, most people feel that the first sample provides much stronger evidence for the hypothesis ithat the urn is pre- dominantly red, because the proportion of red balls is larger in the first than in the second sample. Here again, intuitive judgments are dominated by the sample proportion and are essentially unaffected by the size of the sample, which plays a crucial role in the determination of the actual posterior odds (2). In ad- dition, intuitive estimates of posterior odds are far less extreme than the cor- rect values. The underestimation of the impact of evidence has been observed repeatedly in problems of this type (3, 4). It has been labeled “conservatism.”

Misconceptions of chance. People ex- pect that a sequence of events generated by a random process will represent the essential characteristics of that process even when the sequence is short. In considering tosses of a coin for heads or tails, for example, people regard the sequence H-T-H-T-T-H to be more likely than the sequence H-H-H-T-T-T, which does not appear random, and also more likely than the sequence H-H- H-H-T-H, which does not represent the fairness of the coin (2). Thus, people expect that the essential characteristics of the process will be represented, not only globally in the entire sequence, but also locally in each of its parts. A locally representative sequence, how- ever, deviates systematically from chance expectation: it contains too many al- ternations and too few runs. Another consequence of the belief in local rep- resentativeness is the well-known gam- bler’s fallacy. After observing a long run of red on the roulette wheel. for example, most people erroneously be- lieve that black is now due, presumably because the occurrence of black will result in a more representative sequence than the occurrence of an additional red. Chance is commonly viewed as a self-correcting process in which a devi- ation in one direction induces a devia- tion in the opposite direction to restore the equilibrium. In fact, deviations are not “corrected” as a chance process unfolds, they are merely diluted.

Misconceptions of chance are not limited to naive subjects. A study of the statistical intuitions of experienced research psychologists (5) revealed a lingering belief in what may be called the “law of small numbers,” according to which even small samples are highly

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representative of the populations from which they are drawn. The responses of these investigators reflected the ex- pectation that a valid hypothesis about a population will be represented by a statistically significant result in a sam- ple-with little regard for its size. As a consequence, the researchers put too much faith in the results of small sam- ples and grossly overestimated the replicability of such results. In the actual conduct of research, this bias leads to ithe selection of samples of inadequate size and to overinterpretation of findings.

Insensitivity to predictability. People are sometimes called upon to make such numerical predictions as the future value of a stock, the demand for a commod- ity, or the outcome of a football game. Such predictions are often made by representativeness. For example, sup- pose one is given a description of a company and is asked to predict its future profit. If the description of ithe company is very favorable, a very high profit will appear most represen- tative of that description; if the descrip- tion is mediocre, a mediocre perform- ance will appear most representative. The degree to which the description is favorable is unaffected by the reliability of that description or by the degree to which it permits accurate prediction. Hence, if people predict solely in terms of the favorableness of the description, their predictions will be insensitive to the reliability of the evidence and to the expected accuracy of the prediction.

This mode of judgment violates the normative statistical theory in which the extremeness and the range of pre- dictions are controlled by considerations of predictability. When predictability is nil, the same prediction should be made in all cases. For example, if the descriptions of companies provide no information relevant to profit, then the same value (such as average profit) should be predicted for all companies. If predictability is perfect, of course, the values predicted will match the actual values and the range of predic- tions will equal the range of outcomes. In general, the higher the predictability, the wider the range of predicted values.

Several studies of numerical predic- tion have demonstrated that intuitive predictions violate this rule, and that subjects show little or no regard for considerations of predictability (1). In one of these studies, subjects were pre- sented with several paragraphs, each

describing the performance of a stu-

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dent teacher during a particular prac- tice lesson. Some subjects were asked to evaluate the quality of the lesson described in the paragraph in percentile scores, relative to a specified population. Other subjects were asked to predict, also in percentile scores, the standing of each student teacher 5 years after the practice lesson. The judgments made under the two conditions were identical. That is, the prediction of a remote criterion (success of a teacher after 5 years) was identical to the evaluation of the information on which the predic- tion was based (the quality of the practice lesson). The students who made these predictions were undoubtedly aware of the limited predictability of teaching competence on the basis of a single trial lesson 5 years earlier; never- theless, their predictions were as ex- treme as their evaluations.

The illusion of validity. As we have seen, people often predict by selecting the outcome (for example, an occupa- tion) that is most representative of the input (for example, the description of a person). The confidence they have in their prediction depends primarily on the degree of representativeness (that is, on the quality of the match between the selected outcome and the input) with little or no regard for the factors that limit predictive accuracy. Thus, people express great confidence in the prediction that a person is a librarian when given a description of his personality which matches the stereotype of librarians, even if the description is scanty, unreliable, or out- dated. The unwarranted confidence which is produced by a good fit between the predicted outcome and the input information may be called the illusion of validity. This illusion persists even when the judge is aware of the factors that limit the accuracy of his predic- tions. It is a common observation that

psychologists who conduct selection interviews often experience considerable confidence in their predictions, even when they know of the vast literature that shows selection interviews to be highly fallible. The continued reliance on the clinical interview for selection, despite repeated demonstrations of its

inadequacy, amply attests to the strength of this effect.

The internal consistency of a pattern of inputs is a major determinant of one’s confidence in predictions based on these inputs. For example, people express more confidence in predicting the final grade-point average of a student

whose first-year record consists entirely of B’s than in predicting the grade- point average of a student whose first- year record includes many A’s and C’s. Highly consistent patterns are most often observed when the input vari- ables are highly redundant or correlated. Hence, people tend to have great con- fidence in predictions based on redun- dant input variables. However, an elementary result in the statistics of cor- relation asserts that, given input vari- ables of stated validity, a prediction based on several such inputs can achieve higher accuracy when they are independent of each other than when they are redundant or correlated. Thus, redundancy among inputs decreases accuracy even as it increases confidence, and people are often confident in pre- dictions that are quite likely to be off the mark (1).

Misconceptions of regression. Suppose a large group of children has been examined on two equivalent versions of an aptitude test. If one selects ten chil- dren from among those who did best on one of the two versions, he will usually find their performance on the second version to be somewhat disappointing. Conversely, if one selects ten children from among those who did worst on one version, they will be found, on the average, to do somewhat better on the other version. More generally, consider two variables X and Y which have the same distribution. If one selects indi- viduals whose average X score deviates from the mean of X by k units, then the average of their Y scores will usual- ly deviate from the mean of Y by less than k units. These observations illus- trate a general phenomenon known as regression toward the mean, which was first documented by Galton more than 100 years ago.

In the normal course of life, one encounters many instances of regression toward the mean, in the comparison of the height of fathers and sons, of the intelligence of husbands and wives, or of the performance of individuals on consecutive examinations. Neverthe- less, people do not develop correct in- tuitions about this phenomenon. First, they do not expect regression in many contexts where it is bound to occur. Second, when they recognize the occur- rence of regression, they often invent spurious causal explanations for it (1). We suggest that the phenomenon of re- gression remains elusive because it is in-

compatible with the belief that the predicted outcome should be maximally

SCIENCE, VOL. 185

representative of the input, and, hence, that the value of the outcome variable should be as extreme as the value of the input variable.

The failure to recognize the import of regression can have pernicious con- sequences, as illustrated by the follow- ing observation (1). In a discussion of flight training, experienced instruc- tors noted that praise for an exception- ally smooth landing is typically followed by a poorer landing on the next try, while harsh criticism after a rough landing is usually followed by an im- provement on the next try. The instruc- tors concluded that verbal rewards are detrimental to learning, while verbal punishments are beneficial, contrary to accepted psychological doctrine. This conclusion is unwarranted because of the presence of regression toward ithe mean. As in other cases of repeated examination, an improvement will usu- ally follow a poor performance and a deterioration will usually follow an outstanding performance, even if the instructor does not respond to ,the trainee’s achievement on the first at- tempt. Because the instructors had praised their trainees after good land- ings and admonished them after poor ones, they reached the erroneous and potentially harmful conclusion that pun- ishment is more effective than reward.

Thus, the failure to understand the effect of regression leads one to over- estimate the effectiveness of punish- ment and to underestimate the effec- tiveness of reward. In social interaction, as well as in training, rewards are typ- ically administered when performance is good, and punishments are typically administered when performance is poor. By regression alone, therefore, behavior is most likely to improve after punishment and most likely to deterio- rate after reward. Consequently, the human condition is such that, by chance alone, one is most often rewarded for punishing others and most often pun- ished for rewarding them. People are generally not aware of this contingency. In fact, the elusive role of regression in determining the apparent conse- quences of reward and punishment seems to have escaped the notice of stu- dents of this area.

Availability

There are situations in which people assess the frequency of a class or the probability of an event by the ease with 27 SEPTEMBER 1974

which instances or occurrences can be brought to mind. For example, one may assess the risk of heart attack among middle-aged people by recalling such occurrences among one’s acquaintances. Similarly, one may evaluate the proba- bility that a given business venture will fail by imagining various difficulties it could encounter. This judgmental heu- ristic is called availability. Availability is a useful clue for assessing frequency or probability, because instances of large classes are usually recalled better and faster than instances of less fre- quent classes. However, availability is affected by factors other than frequency and probability. Consequently, the re- liance on availability leads to predicta- ble biases, some of which are illustrated below.

Biases due to the retrievability of in- stances. When the size of a class is judged by the availability of its in- stances, a class whose instances are easily retrieved will appear more nu- merous than a class of equal frequency whose instances are less retrievable. In an elementary demonstration of this ef- fect, subjects heard a list of well-known personalities of both sexes and were subsequently asked to judge whether the list contained more names of men than of women. Different lists were presented to different groups of subjects. In some of the lists the men were relatively more famous than the women, and in others the women were relatively more famous than the men. In each of the lists, the subjects erroneously judged that the class (sex) that had the more famous personalities was the more numerous (6).

In addition to familiarity, there are other factors, such as salience, which affect the retrievability of instances. For example, the impact of seeing a house burning on the subjective probability of such accidents is probably greater than the impact of reading about a fire in the local paper. Furthermore, recent oc- currences are likely to be relatively more available than earlier occurrences. It is a common experience that the subjective probability of traffic accidents rises temporarily when one sees a car overturned by the side of the road.

Biases due to the effectiveness of a search set. Suppose one samples a word (of three letters or more) at random from an English text. Is it more likely that the word starts with r or that r is the third letter? People approach this problem by recalling words that

begin with r (road) and words that have r in the third position (car) and assess the relative frequency by the ease with which words of the two types come to mind. Because it is much easier to search for words by their first letter than by their third letter, most people judge words that begin with a given consonant to be more numerous than words in which the. same consonant ap- pears in the third position. They do so even for consonants, such as r or k, that are more frequent in the third position than in the first (6).

Different tasks elicit different search sets. For example, suppose you are asked to rate the frequency with which abstract words (thought, love) and con- crete words (door, water) appear in written English. A natural way to answer this question is to search for contexts in which the word could ap- pear. It seems easier to think of contexts in which an abstract concept is mentioned (love in love stories) than to think of contexts in which a concrete word (such as door) is mentioned. If the frequency of words is judged by the availability of the contexts in which they appear, abstract words will be judged as relatively more numerous than concrete words. This bias has been ob- served in a recent study (7) which showed that the judged frequency of occurrence of abstract words was much higher than that of concrete words, equated in objective frequency. Abstract words were also judged to appear in a much greater variety of contexts than concrete words.

Biases of imaginability. Sometimes one has to assess the frequency of a class whose instances are not stored in memory but can be generated accord- ing to a given rule. In such situations, one typically generates several instances and evaluates frequency or probability by the ease with which the relevant in- stances can be constructed. However, the ease of constructing instances does not always reflect their actual frequency, and this mode of evaluation is prone to biases. To illustrate, consider a group of 10 people who form committees of k members, 2 < k < 8. How many different committees of k members can be formed? The correct answer to this problem is given by the binomial coef- ficient (10) which reaches a maximum ri -kr/ rrivrI/~il O IULLUL of 252 for k = 5. Clearly, the number of committees of k members equals the number of committees of (10 – k) members, because any committee of k

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members defines a unique group of (10 – k) nonmembers.

One way to answer this question with- out computation is to mentally con- struct committees of k members and to evaluate their number by the ease with which they come to mind. Com- mittees of few members, say 2, are more available than committees of many members, say 8. The simplest scheme for the construction of committees is a partition of the group into disjoint sets. One readily sees that it is easy to con- struct five disjoint committees of 2 members, while it is impossible to gen- erate even two disjoint committees of 8 members. Consequently, if fre- quency is assessed by imaginability, or by availability for construction, the small committees will appear more num- erous than larger committees, in con- trast to the correct bell-shaped func- tion. Indeed, when naive subjects were asked to estimate the number of distinct committees of various sizes, their esti- mates were a decreasing monotonic function of committee size (6). For example, the median estimate of the number of committees of 2 members was 70, while the estimate for com- mittees of 8 members was 20 (the cor- rect answer is 45 in both cases).

Imaginability plays an important role in the evaluation of probabilities in real- life situations. The risk involved in an adventurous expedition, for example, is evaluated by imagining contingencies with which the expedition is not

equipped to cope. If many such difficul- ties are vividly portrayed, the expedi- tion can be made to appear exceedingly dangerous, although the ease with which disasters are imagined need not reflect their actual likelihood. Conversely, the risk involved in an undertaking may be

grossly underestimated if some possible dangers are either difficult to conceive of, or simply do not come to mind.

Illusory correlation. Chapman and

Chapman (8) have described an interest-

ing bias in the judgment of the fre-

quency with which two events co-occur.

They presented naive judges with in- formation concerning several hypothet- ical mental patients. The data for each

patient consisted of a clinical diagnosis and a drawing of a person made by the patient. Later the judges estimated the frequency with which each diagnosis (such as paranoia or suspiciousness) had been accompanied by various fea- tures of the drawing (such as peculiar eyes). The subjects markedly overesti- mated the frequency of co-occurrence of

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natural associates, such as suspicious- ness and peculiar eyes. This effect was labeled illusory correlation. In their er- roneous judgments of the data to which they had been exposed, naive subjects “rediscovered” much of the common, but unfounded, clinical lore concern- ing the interpretation of the draw-a- person test. The illusory correlation effect was extremely resistant to con- tradictory data. It persisted even when the correlation between symptom and diagnosis was actually negative, and it prevented the judges from detecting relationships that were in fact present.

Availability provides a natural ac- count for the illusory-correlation effect. The judgment of how frequently two events co-occur could be based on the strength of the associative bond between them. When the association is strong, one is likely to conclude that the events have been frequently paired. Conse- quently, strong associates will be judged to have occurred together frequently. According to this view, the illusory correlation between suspiciousness and peculiar drawing of the eyes, for ex- ample, is due to the fact that suspi- ciousness is more readily associated with the eyes than with any other part of the body.

Lifelong experience has taught us that, in general, instances of large classes are recalled better and faster than instances of less frequent classes; that likely occurrences are easier to imagine than unlikely ones; and that the associative connections between events are strengthened when the events frequently co-occur. As a result, man has at his disposal a procedure (the availability heuristic) for estimating the numerosity of a class, the likelihood of an event, or the frequency of co-occur- rences, by the ease with which the relevant mental operations of retrieval, construction, or association can be performed. However, as the preceding examples have demonstrated, this valu- able estimation procedure results in systematic errors.

In many situations, people make esti- mates by starting from an initial value that is adjusted to yield the final answer. The initial value, or starting point, may be suggested by the formulation of the

problem, or it may be the result of a

partial computation. In either case, adjustments are typically insufficient (4).

That is, different starting points yield different estimates, which are biased toward the initial values. We call this phenomenon anchoring.

Insufficient adjustment. In a demon- stration of the anchoring effect, subjects were asked to estimate various quanti- ties, stated in percentages (for example, the percentage of African countries in the United Nations). For each quantity, a number between 0 and 100 was deter- mined by spinning a wheel of fortune in the subjects’ presence. The subjects were instructed to indicate first whether that number was higher or lower than the value of the quantity, and then to estimate the value of the quantity by moving upward or downward from the given number. Different groups were given different numbers for each quan- tity, and these arbitrary numbers had a marked effect on estimates. For example, the median estimates of the percentage of African countries in the United Na- tions were 25 and 45 for groups that re- ceived 10 and 65, respectively, as start- ing points. Payoffs for accuracy did not reduce the anchoring effect.

Anchoring occurs not only when the starting point is given to the subject, but also when the subject bases his estimate on the result of some incom-

plete computation. A study of intuitive numerical estimation illustrates this ef- fect. Two groups of high school students estimated, within 5 seconds, a numerical expression that was written on the blackboard. One group estimated the product

8X7X6XSX4x3X2X1 while another group estimated the product

1x2x3x4x5X6x7X8

To rapidly answer such questions, peo- ple may perform a few steps of compu- tation and estimate the product by extrapolation or adjustment. Because ad- justments are typically insufficient, this procedure should lead to underestima- tion. Furthermore, because the result of the first few steps of multiplication (per- formed from left to right) is higher in the descending sequence than in the ascending sequence, the former expres- sion should be judged larger than the latter. Both predictions were confirmed. The median estimate for the ascending sequence was 512, while the median estimate for the descending sequence was 2,250. The correct answer is 40,320.

Biases in the evaluation of conjunc- tive and disjunctive events. In a recent

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study by Bar-Hillel (9) subjects were given the opportunity to bet on one of two events. Three types of events were used: (i) simple events, such as drawing a red marble from a bag containing 50 percent red marbles and 50 percent white marbles; (ii) conjunctive events, such as drawing a red marble seven times in succession, with replacement, from a bag containing 90 percent red marbles and 10 percent white marbles; and (iii) disjunctive events, such as drawing a red marble at least once in seven successive tries, with replacement, from a bag containing 10 percent red marbles and 90 percent white marbles. In this problem, a significant majority of subjects preferred to bet on the con- junctive event (the probability of which is .48) rather than on the simple event (the probability of which is .50). Sub- jects also preferred to bet on the simple event rather than on the disjunctive event, which has a probability of .52. Thus, most subjects bet on the less likely event in both comparisons. This pattern of choices illustrates a general finding. Studies of choice among gambles and of judgments of probability indicate that people tend to overestimate the probability of conjunctive events (10) and to underestimate the probability of disjunctive events. These biases are readily explained as effects of anchor- ing. The stated probability of the elementary event (success at any one stage) provides a natural starting point for the estimation of the probabilities of both conjunctive and disjunctive events. Since adjustment from the starting point is typically insufficient, the final esti- mates remain too close to the probabili- ties of the elementary events in both cases. Note that the overall probability of a conjunctive event is lower than the probability of each elementary event, whereas the overall probability of a disjunctive event is higher than the probability of each elementary event. As a consequence of anchoring, the overall probability will be overestimated in conjunctive problems and underesti- mated in disjunctive problems.

Biases in the evaluation of compound events are particularly significant in the context of planning. The successful completion of an undertaking, such as the development of a new product, typi- cally has a conjunctive character: for the undertaking to succeed, each of a series of events must occur. Even when each of these events is very likely, the overall probability of success can be quite low if the number of events is 27 SEPTEMBER 1974

large. The general tendency to overesti- mate the probability of conjunctive events leads to unwarranted optimism in the evaluation of the likelihood that a plan will succeed or that a project will be completed on time. Conversely, dis- junctive structures are typically encoun- tered in the evaluation of risks. A com- plex system, such as a nuclear reactor or a human body, will malfunction if any of its essential components fails. Even when the likelihood of failure in each component is slight, the probability of an overall failure can be high if many components are involved. Be- cause of anchoring, people will tend to underestimate the probabilities of failure in complex systems. Thus, the direc- tion of the anchoring bias can some- times be inferred from the structure of the event. The chain-like structure of conjunctions leads to overestimation, the funnel-like structure of disjunctions leads to underestimation.

Anchoring in the assessment of sub- jective probability distributions. In deci- sion analysis, experts are often required to express their beliefs about a quantity, such as the value of the Dow-Jones average on a particular day, in the form of a probability distribution. Such a distribution is usually constructed by asking the person to select values of the quantity that correspond to specified percentiles of his subjective probability distribution. For example, the judge may be asked to select a number, X90, such that his subjective probability that this number will be higher than, the value of the Dow-Jones average is .90. That is, he should select the value X90 so that he is just willing to accept 9 to 1 odds that the Dow-Jones average will not exceed it. A subjective probability distribution for the value of the Dow- Jones average can be constructed from several such judgments corresponding to different percentiles.

By collecting subjective probability distributions for many different quanti- ties, it is possible to test the judge for proper calibration. A judge is properly (or externally) calibrated in a set of problems if exactly II percent of the true values of the assessed quantities falls below his stated values of Xr. For example, the true values should fall below X0l for 1 percent of the quanti- ties and above X99 for 1 percent of the quantities. Thus, the true values should fall in the confidence interval between X01 and X99 on 98 percent of the prob- lems.

Several investigators (11) have ob-

tained probability distributions for many quantities from a large number of judges. These distributions indicated large and systematic departures from proper calibration. In most studies, the actual values of the assessed quantities are either smaller than X0l or greater than X09 for about 30 percent of the problems. That is, the subjects state overly narrow confidence intervals which reflect more certainty than is justified by their knowledge about the assessed quantities. This bias is common to naive and to sophisticated subjects, and it is not eliminated by introducing prop- er scoring rules, which provide incentives for external calibration. This effect is at- tributable, in part at least, to anchoring.

To select X90 for the value of the Dow-Jones average, for example, it is natural to begin by thinking about one’s best estimate of the Dow-Jones and to adjust this value upward. If this adjust- ment-like most others-is insufficient, then X9o will not be sufficiently extreme. A similar anchoring effect will occur in the selection of X0,, which is presumably obtained by adjusting one’s best esti- mate downward. Consequently, the con- fidence interval between X1O and X90 will be too narrow, and the assessed probability distribution will be too tight. In support of this interpretation it can be shown that subjective probabilities are systematically altered by a proce- dure in which one’s best estimate does not serve as an anchor.

Subjective probability distributions for a given quantity (the Dow-Jones average) can be obtained in two differ- ent ways: (i) by asking the subject to select values of the Dow-Jones that correspond to specified percentiles of his probability distribution and (ii) by asking the subject to assess the prob- abilities that the true value of the Dow-Jones will exceed some specified values. The two procedures are formally equivalent and should yield identical distributions. However, they suggest dif- ferent modes of adjustment from differ- cent anchors. In procedure (i), the natural starting point is one’s best esti- mate of the quantity. In procedure (ii), on the other hand, the subject may be anchored on the value stated in the question. Alternatively, he may be an- chored on even odds, or 50-50 chances, which is a natural starting point in the estimation of likelihood. In either case, procedure (ii) should yield less extreme odds than procedure (i).

To contrast the two procedures, a set of 24 quantities (such as the air dis-

1129

tance from New Delhi to Peking) was presented to a group of subjects who assessed either XI0 or X90 for each prob- lem. Another group of subjects re- ceived the median judgment of the first group for each of the 24 quantities. They were asked to assess the odds that each of the given values exceeded the true value of the relevant quantity. In the absence of any bias, the second group should retrieve the odds specified to the first group, that is, 9:1. How- ever, if even odds or the stated value serve as anchors, the odds of the sec- ond group should be less extreme, that is, closer to 1:1. Indeed, the median odds stated by this group, across all problems, were 3:1. When the judg- ments of the two groups were tested for external calibration, it was found that subjects in the first group were too extreme, in accord with earlier studies. The events that they defined as having a probability of .10 actually obtained in 24 percent of the cases. In contrast, subjects in the second group were too conservative. Events to which they as- signed an average probability of .34 actually obtained in 26 percent of the cases. These results illustrate the man- ner in which the degree of calibration depends on the procedure of elicitation.

Discussion

This article has been concerned with cognitive biases that stem from the reli- ance on judgmental heuristics. These biases are not attributable to motiva- tional effects such as wishful thinking or the distortion of judgments by payoffs and penalties. Indeed, several of the severe errors of judgment reported earlier occurred despite the fact that subjects were encouraged to be accurate and were rewarded for the correct answers (2, 6).

The reliance on heuristics and the prevalence of biases are not restricted to laymen. Experienced researchers are also prone to the same biases-when they think intuitively. For example, the tendency to predict the outcome that best represents the data, with insufficient regard for prior probability, has been observed in the intuitive judgments of individuals who have had extensive training in statistics (1, 5). Although the statistically sophisticated avoid elementary errors, such as the gambler’s fallacy, their intuitive judgments are liable to similar fallacies in more in- tricate and less transparent problems.

1130

It is not surprising that useful heuris- tics such as representativeness and availability are retained, even though they occasionally lead to errors in pre- diction or estimation. What is perhaps surprising is the failure of people to infer from lifelong experience such fundamental statistical rules as regres- sion toward the mean, or the effect of sample size on sampling variability. Al- though everyone is exposed, in the nor- mal course of life, to numerous ex- amples from which these rules could have been induced, very few people discover the principles of sampling and regression on their own. Statistical prin- ciples are not learned from everyday experience because the relevant in- stances are not coded appropriately. For example, people do not discover that successive lines in a text differ more in average word length than do successive pages, because they simply do not at- tend to the average word length of in- dividual lines or pages. Thus, people do not learn the relation between sample size and sampling variability, although the data for such learning are abundant.

The lack of an appropriate code also explains why people usually do not detect the biases in their judgments of probability. A person could conceivably learn whether his judgments are exter- nally calibrated by keeping a tally of the proportion of events that actually occur among those to which he assigns the same probability. However, it is not natural to group events by their judged probability. In the absence of such grouping it is impossible for an indivi- dual to discover, for example, that only 50 percent of the predictions to which he has assigned a probability of .9 or higher actually came true.

The empirical analysis of cognitive biases has implications for the theoreti- cal and applied role of judged probabili- ties. Modern decision theory (12, 13) regards subjective probability as the quantified opinion of an idealized per- son. Specifically, the subjective proba- bility of a given event is defined by the set of bets about this event that such a person is willing to accept. An inter- nally consistent, or coherent, subjective probability measure can be derived for an individual if his choices among bets satisfy certain principles, that is, the axioms of the theory. The derived prob- ability is subjective in the sense that different individuals are allowed to have different probabilities for the same event. The major contribution of this ap- proach is that it provides a rigorous

subjective interpretation of probability that is applicable to unique events and is embedded in a general theory of ra- tional decision.

It should perhaps be noted that, while subjective probabilities can sometimes be inferred from preferences among bets, they are normally not formed in this fashion. A person bets on team A rather than on team B because he be- lieves that team A is more likely to win; he does not infer this belief from his betting preferences. Thus, in reality, subjective probabilities determine pref- erences among bets and are not de- rived from them, as in the axiomatic theory of rational decision (12).

The inherently subjective nature of probability has led many students to the belief that coherence, or internal con- sistency, is the only valid criterion by which judged probabilities should be evaluated. From the standpoint of the formal theory of subjective probability, any set of internally consistent probabil- ity judgments is as good as any other. This criterion is not entirely satisfactory, because an internally consistent set of subjective probabilities can be incom- patible with other beliefs held by the individual. Consider a person whose subjective probabilities for all possible outcomes of a coin-tossing game reflect the gambler’s fallacy. That is, his esti- mate of the probability of tails on a particular toss increases with the num- ber of consecutive heads that preceded that toss. The judgments of such a per- son could be internally consistent and therefore acceptable as adequate sub- jective probabilities according to the criterion of the formal theory. These probabilities, however, are incompatible with the generally held belief that a coin has no memory and is therefore in- capable of generating sequential de- pendencies. For judged probabilities to be considered adequate, or rational, in- ternal consistency is not enough. The judgments must be compatible with the entire web of beliefs held by the in- dividual. Unfortunately, there can be no simple formal procedure for assess- ing the compatibility of a set of proba- bility judgments with the judge’s total system of beliefs. The rational judge will nevertheless strive for compatibility, even though internal consistency is more easily achieved and assessed. In particular, he will attempt to make his probability judgments compatible with his knowledge about the subject mat- ter, the laws of probability, and his own judgmental heuristics and biases.

SCIENCE, VOL. 185

Summary

This article described three heuristics that are employed in making judgments under uncertainty: (i) representativeness, which is usually employed when peo- ple are asked to judge the probability that an object or event A belongs to class or process B; (ii) availability of in- stances or scenarios, which is often em- ployed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibil- ity of a particular development; and (iii) adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical predic- tion when a relevant value is available. These heuristics are highly economical

Summary

This article described three heuristics that are employed in making judgments under uncertainty: (i) representativeness, which is usually employed when peo- ple are asked to judge the probability that an object or event A belongs to class or process B; (ii) availability of in- stances or scenarios, which is often em- ployed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibil- ity of a particular development; and (iii) adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical predic- tion when a relevant value is available. These heuristics are highly economical

and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and of the biases to which they lead could improve judgments and decisions in situations of uncertainty.

References and Notes

1. D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, Psychol. Rev. 80, 237 (1973).

2. – , Cognitive Psychol. 3, 430 (1972). 3. W. Edwards, in Formal Representation of

Human Judgment, B. Kleinmuntz, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1968), pp. 17-52.

4. P. Slovic and S. Lichtenstein, Organ. Behav. Hum. Performance 6, 649 (1971).

5. A. Tversky and D. Kahneman, Psychol. Bull. 76, 105 (1971).

6. —- , Cognitive Psychol. 5, 207 (1973). 7. R. C. Galbraith and B. J. Underwood,

Mem. Cognition 1, 56 (1973).

and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and of the biases to which they lead could improve judgments and decisions in situations of uncertainty.

References and Notes

1. D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, Psychol. Rev. 80, 237 (1973).

2. – , Cognitive Psychol. 3, 430 (1972). 3. W. Edwards, in Formal Representation of

Human Judgment, B. Kleinmuntz, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1968), pp. 17-52.

4. P. Slovic and S. Lichtenstein, Organ. Behav. Hum. Performance 6, 649 (1971).

5. A. Tversky and D. Kahneman, Psychol. Bull. 76, 105 (1971).

6. —- , Cognitive Psychol. 5, 207 (1973). 7. R. C. Galbraith and B. J. Underwood,

Mem. Cognition 1, 56 (1973).

8. L. J. Chapman and J. P. Chapman, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 73, 193 (1967); ibid., 74, 271 (1969).

9. M. Bar-Hillel, Organ. Behav. Hum. Per- formance 9, 396 (1973).

10. J. Cohen, E. I. Chesnick, D. Haran, Br. J. Psychol. 63, 41 (1972).

11. M. Alpert and H. Raiffa, unpublished manu- script; C. A. S. von Holstein, Acta Psychol. 35, 478 (1971); R. L. Winkler, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 62, 776 (1967).

12. L. J. Savage, The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York, 1954).

13. B. De Finetti, in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, D. E. Sills, Ed. (Mac- millan, New York, 1968), vol. 12, pp. 496- 504.

14. This research was supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense and was monitored by the Office of Naval Research under contract N00014- 73-C-0438 to the Oregon Research Institute, Eugene. Additional support for this research was provided by the Research and Develop- ment Authority of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

8. L. J. Chapman and J. P. Chapman, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 73, 193 (1967); ibid., 74, 271 (1969).

9. M. Bar-Hillel, Organ. Behav. Hum. Per- formance 9, 396 (1973).

10. J. Cohen, E. I. Chesnick, D. Haran, Br. J. Psychol. 63, 41 (1972).

11. M. Alpert and H. Raiffa, unpublished manu- script; C. A. S. von Holstein, Acta Psychol. 35, 478 (1971); R. L. Winkler, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 62, 776 (1967).

12. L. J. Savage, The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York, 1954).

13. B. De Finetti, in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, D. E. Sills, Ed. (Mac- millan, New York, 1968), vol. 12, pp. 496- 504.

14. This research was supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense and was monitored by the Office of Naval Research under contract N00014- 73-C-0438 to the Oregon Research Institute, Eugene. Additional support for this research was provided by the Research and Develop- ment Authority of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

Rural Health Care in Mexico? Present educational and administrative structures must be

changed in order to improve health care in rural areas.

Luis Cainedo

Rural Health Care in Mexico? Present educational and administrative structures must be

changed in order to improve health care in rural areas.

Luis Cainedo

The present health care structure in Mexico focuses attention on the urban population, leaving the rural communi- ties practically unattended. There are two main factors contributing to this situation. One is the lack of coordina- tion among the different institutions responsible for the health of the com- munity and among the educational institutions. The other is the lack of information concerning the nature of the problems in rural areas. In an at- tempt to provide a solution to these problems, a program has been designed that takes into consideration the en- vironmental conditions, malnutrition, poverty, and negative cultural factors that are responsible for the high inci- dences of certain diseases among rural populations. It is based on the develop- ment of a national information system for the collection and dissemination of information related to general, as well as rural, health care, that will provide the basis for a national health care sys- tem, and depends on the establishment of a training program for professionals in community medicine.

27 SEPTEMBER 1974

The present health care structure in Mexico focuses attention on the urban population, leaving the rural communi- ties practically unattended. There are two main factors contributing to this situation. One is the lack of coordina- tion among the different institutions responsible for the health of the com- munity and among the educational institutions. The other is the lack of information concerning the nature of the problems in rural areas. In an at- tempt to provide a solution to these problems, a program has been designed that takes into consideration the en- vironmental conditions, malnutrition, poverty, and negative cultural factors that are responsible for the high inci- dences of certain diseases among rural populations. It is based on the develop- ment of a national information system for the collection and dissemination of information related to general, as well as rural, health care, that will provide the basis for a national health care sys- tem, and depends on the establishment of a training program for professionals in community medicine.

27 SEPTEMBER 1974

The continental and insular area of Mexico, including interior waters, is 2,022,058 square kilometers (1, 2). In 1970 the population of Mexico was 48,377,363, of which 24,055,305 per- sons (49.7 percent) were under 15 years of age. The Indian population made up 7.9 percent of the total (2, 3). As indicated in Table 1, 42.3 percent of the total population live in commu- nities of less than 2,500 inhabitants, and in such communities public services as well as means of communication are very scarce or nonexistent. A large per- centage (39.5 percent) of the econom- ically active population is engaged in agriculture (4).

The country’s population growth rate is high, 3.5 percent annually, and it seems to depend on income, being higher among the 50 percent of the population earning less than 675 pesos (\$50) per family per month (5). The majority of this population lives in the rural areas. The most frequent causes of mortality in rural areas are malnu- trition, infectious and parasitic diseases (6, 7), pregnancy complications, and

The continental and insular area of Mexico, including interior waters, is 2,022,058 square kilometers (1, 2). In 1970 the population of Mexico was 48,377,363, of which 24,055,305 per- sons (49.7 percent) were under 15 years of age. The Indian population made up 7.9 percent of the total (2, 3). As indicated in Table 1, 42.3 percent of the total population live in commu- nities of less than 2,500 inhabitants, and in such communities public services as well as means of communication are very scarce or nonexistent. A large per- centage (39.5 percent) of the econom- ically active population is engaged in agriculture (4).

The country’s population growth rate is high, 3.5 percent annually, and it seems to depend on income, being higher among the 50 percent of the population earning less than 675 pesos (\$50) per family per month (5). The majority of this population lives in the rural areas. The most frequent causes of mortality in rural areas are malnu- trition, infectious and parasitic diseases (6, 7), pregnancy complications, and

accidents (2). In 1970 there were 34,- 107 doctors in Mexico (2). The ratio of inhabitants to doctors, which is 1423.7, is not a representative index of the actual distribution of resources because there is a great scarcity of health professionals in rural areas and a high concentration in urban areas (Fig. 1) (7, 8).

In order to improve health at a na- tional level, this situation must be changed. The errors made in previous attempts to improve health care must be avoided, and use must be made of the available manpower and resources of modern science to produce feasible answers at the community level. Al- though the main objective of a special- isit in community medicine is to control disease, such control cannot be achieved unless action is taken against the underlying causes of disease; it has already been observed that partial solu- tions are inefficient (9). As a back- ground to this new program that has been designed to provide health care in rural communities, I shall first give a summary of the previous attempts that have been made to provide such care, describing the various medical in- stitutions and other organizations that are responsible for the training of med- ical personnel and for constructing the facilities required for health care.

accidents (2). In 1970 there were 34,- 107 doctors in Mexico (2). The ratio of inhabitants to doctors, which is 1423.7, is not a representative index of the actual distribution of resources because there is a great scarcity of health professionals in rural areas and a high concentration in urban areas (Fig. 1) (7, 8).

In order to improve health at a na- tional level, this situation must be changed. The errors made in previous attempts to improve health care must be avoided, and use must be made of the available manpower and resources of modern science to produce feasible answers at the community level. Al- though the main objective of a special- isit in community medicine is to control disease, such control cannot be achieved unless action is taken against the underlying causes of disease; it has already been observed that partial solu- tions are inefficient (9). As a back- ground to this new program that has been designed to provide health care in rural communities, I shall first give a summary of the previous attempts that have been made to provide such care, describing the various medical in- stitutions and other organizations that are responsible for the training of med- ical personnel and for constructing the facilities required for health care.

The author is an investigator in the department of molecular biology at the Instituto de Investi- gaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Aut6- noma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 20, D.F. This article is adapted from a paper presented at the meeting on Science and Man in the Americas, jointly organized by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Mexico and the American Association for the Advancement of Science and held in Mexico City, 20 June to 4 July 1973.

1131

The author is an investigator in the department of molecular biology at the Instituto de Investi- gaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Aut6- noma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 20, D.F. This article is adapted from a paper presented at the meeting on Science and Man in the Americas, jointly organized by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Mexico and the American Association for the Advancement of Science and held in Mexico City, 20 June to 4 July 1973.

1131

• Article Contents
• p. 1124
• p. 1125
• p. 1126
• p. 1127
• p. 1128
• p. 1129
• p. 1130
• p. 1131
• Science, New Series, Vol. 185, No. 4157 (Sep. 27, 1974), pp. 1089-1200
• Front Matter [pp. 1089-1192]
• Letters
• Uranium Enrichment [p. 1109]
• Clean Air by 1975? [p. 1109]
• Sex Preselection [p. 1109]
• Airships [pp. 1109-1110]
• The Creative Process [p. 1110]
• World Population: World Responsibility [p. 1113]
• Classification: Purposes, Principles, Progress, Prospects [pp. 1115-1123]
• Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases [pp. 1124-1131]
• Rural Health Care in Mexico? [pp. 1131-1137]
• News and Comment
• Safeguard: Disputed Weapon Nears Readiness on Plains of North Dakota [pp. 1137-1140]
• Plutonium (II): Watching and Waiting for Adverse Effects [pp. 1140-1143]
• Briefing [p. 1142]
• UN Conferences: Topping Any Agenda Is the Question of Development [pp. 1143-1193]
• Research News
• Modeling the Climate: A New Sense of Urgency [pp. 1145-1147]
• Speaking of Science: Skunks: On the Scent of a Myth [p. 1146]
• Planetary Science: First Meeting on Moons of the Solar System [pp. 1147-1148]
• AAAS Annual Meeting, 26-31 January 1975, New York City [pp. 1149-1157]
• Book Reviews
• Birds Living Together: Actually and in Theory [pp. 1158-1159]
• How Pictures Work [pp. 1159-1160]
• Neuroscience [p. 1160]
• Honoring Dirac [pp. 1160-1161]
• Reports
• Atomic Images by Electron-Wave Holography [pp. 1163-1165]
• Stratospheric Ozone Destruction by Man-Made Chlorofluoromethanes [pp. 1165-1167]
• Methane Production in the Interstitial Waters of Sulfate-Depleted Marine Sediments [pp. 1167-1169]
• Melatonin: Its Inhibition of Pineal Antigonadotrophic Activity in Male Hamsters [pp. 1169-1171]
• Rod Origin of Prolonged Afterimages [pp. 1171-1172]
• Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis in a Hamster Colony Causes Infection of Hospital Personnel [pp. 1173-1174]
• Renal Lysosomes: Role in Biogenesis of Erythropoietin [pp. 1174-1176]
• Topology of the Outer Segment Membranes of Retinal Rods and Cones Revealed by a Fluorescent Probe [pp. 1176-1179]
• Centric Fusion, Satellite DNA, and DNA Polarity in Mouse Chromosomes [pp. 1179-1181]
• Pulmonary Alveolar Hypoxia: Release of Prostaglandins and Other Humoral Mediators [pp. 1181-1183]
• Nuclear Waste Disposal in the Oceans [pp. 1183-1184]
• Wilson’s Disease and Copper-Binding Proteins [pp. 1184-1185]
• Subsidence of Venice: Predictive Difficulties [p. 1185]
• Back Matter [pp. 1193-1200]